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Information About Older Pets

The American Veterinary Medical Association has prepared an excellent overview to answer questions about caring for older pets.

Cats and small dogs are generally considered geriatric at the age of 7. Larger breed dogs tend to have shorter life spans and are considered geriatric when they are approximately 6 years of age. Owners tend to want to think of their pet's age in human terms. While it is not as simple as "1 human year = X cat/dog years", there are calculations that can help put a pet's age in human terms:

Age: Human Equivalents for Older Pets
Cat Years Human Years
7 45
10 58
15 78
20 98
Dog Years Human Years(*dog size lbs)
7 Small - Medium: 44-47
Large - Very Large: 50-56
10 Small - Medium: 56-60
Large - Very Large: 66-78
15 Small - Medium: 76-83
Large - Very Large: 93-115
20 Small - Medium: 96-105
Large - Very Large: 120
*Small: 0-20 lbs; Medium: 21-50 lbs; Large: 51-90 lbs; Very Large: >90 lbs
The oldest recorded age of a cat is 34 years. The oldest recorded age of a dog is 29 years.

Geriatric pets can develop many of the same problems seen in older people, such as:

  1. Cancer
  2. Heart Disease
  3. Kidney/Urinary Tract Disease
  4. Liver Disease
  5. Diabetes
  6. Joint or Bone Disease
  7. Senility
  8. Weakness

 Senior pets require increased attention, including more frequent visits to the veterinarian, possible changes in diet and in some cases alterations to their home environment. Here are some basic considerations when caring for older pets:

Older Pet Care Considerations
Area of Concern Description
Increased Veterinary Care Geriatic pets should have semi-annual visits so signs of illness or other problems can be detected early and treated. Senior pet exams are similar to those for younger pets, but are more in depth, and may include dental care, possible bloodwork, and specific checks for physical signs of diseases that are more likely in older pets.
Diet and Nutrition Geriatric pets often need foods that are more readily digested, and have different calorie levels and ingredients, and anti-aging nutrients
Weight Control Weight gain in geriatric dogs increases the risk of health problems, whereas weight loss is a bigger concern for geriatric cats.
Parasite Control Older pets’ immune systems are not as healthy as those of younger animals; as a result, they can’t fight off diseases or heal as fast as younger pets.
Maintaining Mobility As with older people, keeping older pets mobile through appropriate exercise helps keep them healthier and more mobile
Vaccination Your pet's vaccination needs may change with age. Talk to your veterinarian about a vaccination program for your geriatric pet.
Mental Health Pets can show signs of senility. Stimulating them through interactions can help keep them mentally active. If any changes in your pet's behavior are noticed, please consult your veterinarian.
Environmental Considerations Older pets may need changes in their lifestyle, such as sleeping areas to avoid stairs, more time indoors, etc. Disabled pets have special needs which can be discussed with your veterinarian.
Reproductive Diseases Non-neutered/non-spayed geriatric pets are at higher risk of mammary, testicular, and prostate cancers.


Before any medical signs become apparent, behavioral changes can serve as important indicators that something is changing in an older pet, which may be due to medical or other reasons. As your pet's owner, you serve a critical role in detecting early signs of disease because you interact and care for your pet on a daily basis and are familiar with your pet's behavior and routines. If your pet is showing any change in behavior or other warning signs of disease, contact your veterinarian and provide them with a list of the changes you have observed in your pet. Sometimes, the changes may seem contradictory - such as an older pet that has symptoms of hearing loss but also seems more sensitive to strange sounds.

Possible Behavior Changes in Older Pets
  • Increased reaction to sounds
  • Increased vocalization
  • Confusion
  • Disorientation
  • Decreased interaction with humans
  • Increased irritability
  • Decreased response to commands
  • Increased aggressive/protective behavior
  • Increased anxiety
  • House soiling
  • Decreased self-hygiene/grooming
  • Repetitive activity
  • Increased wandering
  • Change in sleep cycles

Once any underlying or other disease causes have been ruled out, there is a chance your pet may be experiencing cognitive dysfunction. Studies conducted in the early 1990s were the first to identify brain changes in older dogs that were similar to brain changes seen in humans with Alzheimer's disease. Laboratory tests were also developed in the 1990s to detect learning and memory deficits in older dogs. Recently these studies have started on younger dogs in order to fully understand the effect of aging on the canine brain. Similar studies in young and older cats are also ongoing.  While researchers are still not able to identify any genetic cause of why certain animals develop cognitive dysfunction, there are drugs and specific diets available that can help manage cognitive dysfunction in dogs. If you think your pet is becoming senile, discuss it with your veterinarian.

The signs you might see will vary with the disease or problem affecting your pet, and some signs can be seen with more than one problem. As the pet's owner, you can provide your veterinarian with valuable information that can help them determine what is going on with your pet.

Common Warning Signs of Disease in Older Pets
Kidney disease Urinary tract disease Heart disease
Decreased appetite Increased urination/spotting or "accidents" in the house Coughing
Increased thirst Straining to urinate Difficulty breathing
Increased urination Blood in urine Decreased tolerance of exercise
Decreased or no urination Weakness Decreased appetite
Poor hair coat Vomiting
Vomiting
Sore mouth

In pets the rate of cancer increases with age. Cancer is responsible for approximately half the deaths of pets over 10 years of age. Dogs get cancer at roughly the same rate as humans while cats tend to have lower rates of cancer. Some cancers, such as breast or testicular cancer, are largely preventable by spaying and neutering. A diagnosis of cancer may be based on x-rays, blood tests, physical appearance of tumors, and other physical signs. The ultimate test for cancer is through confirmation via a biopsy. You can read more in the AVMA's What you should know about cancer in animals.

Top 10 Common Signs of Cancer in Pets
  • Abnormal swellings that persist or continue to grow
  • Sores that do not heal
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Bleeding or discharge from any body opening
  • Offensive mouth odor
  • Difficulty eating/swallowing
  • Hesitation to exercise/loss of stamina
  • Persistent lamness/stiffness
  • Difficulty breathing, urinating, or defecating


 Older pets, especially large dogs, are vulnerable to arthritis and other joint diseases and the signs you see can vary. This chart provides the basic signs you might see if your pet has arthritis; you might see one or more of these signs in your pet. Talk to your veterinarian and have your pet examined.

Signs of Arthritis in Pets
Favoring a limb Seeming to have stiff or sore joints Decreased activity or less interest in play
Difficulty sitting or standing Hesitancy to jump,run or climb stairs Attitude or behavioral changes (including increased irritability)
Sleeping more Weight gain Being less alert

Signs of arthritis often are similar to signs of normal aging, so if your pet seems to have any of these symptoms for more than two weeks, the best thing to do is to have your veterinarian examine them and then advise you as to what treatment plan would be best to help your pet deal with the pain. Arthritis treatments for pets are similar to those for humans, and may include:

  • Healthy diet and exercise to help maintain proper weight.
  • Working with your veterinarian to find a drug treatment that helps relieve the pain.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDS): the most common treatment for arthritis in dogs. Do not use these drugs without talking to us first.  Nutriceuticals, such as pills, chews or food containing either glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate or Omega fatty acids have been shown to help relieve the symptoms of arthritis in dogs.
  • A veterinarian-prescribed NSAID and nutriceuticals together may help decrease pain and disease progression.
  • Diets with special supplements may also help decrease the discomfort and increase the joint mobility.
  • Stem cell therapy; pain laser therapy, physical therapy and acupuncture also can be very effective.

Do not give human pain medications to your pet without first consulting your veterinarian. Some human products, including over-the-counter medications, can be fatal for pets.

Changes in the home environment may also help you deal with an older pet who is experiencing stiffness and/or pain. Orthopedic beds, stair steps to help an animal up to higher places (so they don't have to jump), raised feeding platforms, etc. can help make your arthritic pet's life more comfortable.

Sometimes, euthanasia is obviously the best thing to do for your pet when the pet is suffering or has a terminal illness that can no longer effectively be treated. At other times, however, it can be less clear. This can be incredibly difficult for both the owner and the veterinarian and is often a very tough decision to make. An open discussion with your veterinarian including an honest evaluation of your pet's quality of life should help you make the decision.

One way to determine if your aging pet is still enjoying life and can remain with you a little longer is by using a "Quality of Life" scale to determine if the animal's basic needs are being met. This scale can be very helpful for the veterinarian and pet owner when deciding what is best for your pet. In this scale, pets are scored on a scale of 1 through 10 in each category with 10 being the highest score for quality of life. Again, only an honest evaluation of each category will help with the decision.

Quality of Life (HHHHHMM Scale)
Score Category Criterion
0-10 HURT Adequate pain control (including breathing ability)
0-10 HUNGER Is the pet eating enough? Does the pet require hand-feeding or a feeding tube?
0-10 HYDRATION Is the pet dehydrated:? Does it need subcutaneous fluids?
0-10 HYGIENE Pet needs to be brushed and clean, especially after elimination
0-10 HAPPINESS Does the pet express joy/interest? Does it respond to its environment? Does the pet show signs of boredom/loneliness/anxiety/fear? Can the pet's bed be situated close to family activities?
0-10 MOBILITY Can the pet get up without assistance does the pet want to go for a walk? Is the pet experiencing seizures/stumbling?
0-10 MORE GOOD THAN BAD When bad days start to outnumber good days, the quality of life becomes compromised and euthanasia needs to be considered
Total A total of 35 points is considered acceptable for a quality of life score

The AVMA offers several additional resources for pet owners, including brochures that are available online and can be downloaded and printed at no charge.

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